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Remarkable advances on the understanding of the systematics and biogeography of the tribe Oryzomyini were achieved in the last years. However, some important questions remain pending. Employing a multiloci dataset obtained through the Anchored Phylogenomics, we aim to address some prevalent questions on the evolution of this tribe, as: 1) the four major Oryzomyini clades obtained in several analyses with traditional sequencing will be recovered with phylogenomic data? 2) What is the ancestral area of origin or differentiation (AOD) of this tribe? 3) Which landscape features played important roles on the diversification of the tribe? Here, we analyzed 50 species and 25 genera of the tribe Oryzomyini under the Anchored Phylogenomics approach; RAxML and ASTRAL were employed on the phylogenetic reconstruction; data estimates were obtained on BEAST, with a SortaDate approach; and biogeographic analyses were performed on BioGeoBEARS, using five different models of range evolution. ASTRAL and RAxML approaches produced quite similar topologies, with robust support for most branches. Both species tree and supermatrix probabilistic methods recovered all genera as monophyletic, confirming their validity on a genomic approach. The analyses also corroborated the monophyly and phylogenetic relationship of the four main clades of Oryzomyini. Our approach suggests the origin of the tribe Oryzomyini around 6.88 million years ago (mya), in a Cis-Andean area, likely on Northern Amazonia. At this time (late Miocene), the current Amazon basin was in formation, with the Acre System dominating the landscape, and diverse rainforests dominating western Amazon. In general, our estimates for tribe origin were similar to those obtained in other studies. Evolutionary history of the tribe Oryzomyini is deeply associated with the Cis-Andean portion of the South American continent, more precisely with the Amazon region on clade B, to the northern Andes on clade C, and to the Eastern portion of the continent on clade D. There were multiple invasions of Andean and trans-Andean regions, not simultaneous, having occurred in a time lapse of 1.14 mya during the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene. Although there is some overlap on the current distribution of genera and species between the major clades, their histories are quite distinct, as the ancestors of these clades originated in different areas of the continent, with vicariant and dispersal events occurring on distinct directions. Despite this complexity, we identified the AOD for the tribe in the northern portion of Amazon. Thus, we advanced in some issues on the phylogeny, tempo and mode of evolution of the species of Oryzomyini, having established hypotheses on the biogeographic history of this group in the continent.Nevertheless, we still need a more comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis, including more taxonomic diversity, coupled with simulation approaches on geographic distribution and rates of diversification, as well as studies on their energetic balance, ecophysiology and reproductive strategies.


Anchored phylogenomics, systematics, biogeography, South America.


Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP): 09/16009-1 e 16/20055-2. Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Científico (CNPq).


Sistemática e Taxonomia


Alexandre Reis Percequillo, Ana Carolina Oliveira Pavan, Joyce Rodrigues Prado, Elisandra Almeida Chiquito, Jeronymo Dalapicolla, Edson Fiedler Abreu-Junior, Pamella Brennand, Scott Steppan, Alan Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Mark Wilkinson